Malignant Neoplasm

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Contents

More Specific Terms

Introduction

Classification

Etiology

  • risk of cancer in different tissues is correlates (0.81) with the total number of stem cell divisions [26]
  • 2/3 of cancers due to bad luck [26]
  • genetic predisposition
  • taller women may be at greater risk for many cancers
  • work stress is not a risk factor [11]

Epidemiology

  • most common tumors by < 15 years of age
  • most common tumors by 15-34 years of age
  • most common tumors by 35-54 years of age
  • most common tumors by 55-74 years of age
  • most common tumors by > 75 years of age
  • mortality from malignant neoplasms in men, 2013 []
  • mortality from malignant neoplasms in women, 2013 []
  • cancer mortalilty
  • declined by 20% between 1980-2014 [32] & 1991-2010 [17] from 240 to 192 deaths per 100,000
  • substantial geographic variability within in U.S.
  • Summit County, Colorado with lowest cancer mortality in 2014, at 71 deaths per 100,000 [32]
  • Union County, Florida with highest cancer mortality in 2014, at 503 per 100,000 [32]
  • incidence of invasive cancer: 451 per 100,000 population
  • incidence higher in men than women
  • mortality similar among men & women [27]
  • older adults & black Americans of all ages are likely to develop cancer & present with more advanced disease [18,27]
  • aggressiveness of malignancy shows variable association with age [18]
  • ethnic differences in cancer rates & mortality [23]

Pathology

Genetics

Clinical-manifestations

  • local
  • regional & distant
  • compression of nerves
  • weakening or breach of structural integrity
  • metabolic disorders
  • symptoms that increase the likelihood of cancer [3]

Laboratory

Complications

  • in the 1st week after a cancer diagnosis

Management

  • cure for nearly all solid tumors is usually related to whether of not the tumor can be completely resected [9]
  • see specific cancer
  • see cancer survivor
  • treatment of symptoms [29,30] including
  • palliative care consult for patients with newly diagnosed advanced cancer [9,31]
  • patients who have cancer with poor prognosis who enter hospice use less intensive medical care & cost less to care for ( median hospice duration 11 days) [25]
  • collaborative care more effective for treating depression than usual care [24]

Notes

  • overdiagnosis results in overtreatment

More General Terms

Additional Terms

References

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    - Long-term follow-up guidelines for survivors of childhood, adolescent, and young adult cancers. Sections 107-132: surgery. (Children's Oncology Group) ngc-guideline: [58]
    - Long-term follow-up guidelines for survivors of childhood, adolescent, and young adult cancers. Sections 133-136: other therapeutic modalities. (Children's Oncology Group) ngc-guideline: [59]
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    - Long-term follow-up guidelines for survivors of childhood, adolescent, and young adult cancers. Sections 3-5: blood/serum products. (Children's Oncology Group) ngc-guideline: [61]
    - Long-term follow-up guidelines for survivors of childhood, adolescent, and young adult cancers. Sections 38-91: radiation. (Children's Oncology Group) ngc-guideline: [62]
    - Long-term follow-up guidelines for survivors of childhood, adolescent, and young adult cancers. Sections 6-37: chemotherapy. (Children's Oncology Group) ngc-guideline: [63]
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    - General principles of care. In: Suspected cancer in primary care: guidelines for investigation, referral and reducing ethnic disparities New Zealand Guidelines Group ngc-guideline: [69]
    - Psychosocial support and information needs. In: Suspected cancer in primary care: guidelines for investigation, referral and reducing ethnic disparities New Zealand Guidelines Group ngc-guideline: [70]
    - The management of depression in patients with cancer. Program in Evidence-based Care. ngc-guideline: [71]
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    - Putting evidence into practice: evidence-based interventions for fatigue during and following cancer and its treatment. Oncology Nursing Society ngc-guideline: [75]
    - Putting evidence into practice: evidence-based interventions to prevent, manage, and treat chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. Oncology Nursing Society ngc-guideline: [76]
    - Putting evidence into practice: prevention and management of bleeding in patients with cancer. Oncology Nursing Society ngc-guideline: [77]

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