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More Specific Terms




  • 8% if mom did not use antidepressant
  • 12% if mom used antidepressant before but not during pregnancy
  • 14% if mom used antidepressant both before & during pregnancy
  • 15% if mom started antidepressant during pregnancy


  • efficacy
  • response rate for all antidepressants is 60-70%, with placebo response rate of ~ 30%
  • benefits of antidepressants fall below accepted criteria for clinical significance [7]
  • selection of antidepressant:

More General Terms


  1. Prescriber's Letter 11(5):26 2004 Detail-Document#: [1] (subscription needed) [2]
  2. Prescriber's Letter: Comparison of Commonly Used Antidepressants Detail-Document#: [3] (subscription needed) [4]
  3. Prescriber's Letter 11(12): 2004 Suicidality in Children and Adolescents Being Treated With Antidepressant Medications Detail-Document#: [5] (subscription needed) [6] sants/SSRIPHA200410.htm [7] [8]
  4. Hansen RA, Gartlehner G, Lohr KN, Gaynes BN, Carey TS. Efficacy and safety of second-generation antidepressants in the treatment of major depressive disorder. Ann Intern Med. 2005 Sep 20;143(6):415-26. Review. PMID: [9]
  5. FDA Medwatch Public Health Advisory: Suicidality in Adults Being Treated with Antidepressant Medications [10]
  6. Prescriber's Letter 15(4): 2008 Antidepressant Efficacy Detail-Document#: [11] (subscription needed) [12]
  7. Kirsch I, Deacon BJ, Huedo-Medina TB, Scoboria A, Moore TJ, Johnson BT. Initial severity and antidepressant benefits: a meta-analysis of data submitted to the Food and Drug Administration. PLoS Med. 2008 Feb;5(2):e45. PMID: [13]
  8. Prescriber's Letter 15(5): 2008 Comparison of Commonly Used Antidepressants Detail-Document#: [14] (subscription needed) [15]
  9. Qaseem A et al. Using second-generation antidepressants to treat depressive disorders: A clinical practice guideline from the American College of Physicians. Ann Intern Med 2008 Nov 18; 149:725. PMID: &dopt=Abstract (Correponding NGC guideline withdrawn Jan 2014)
    - Gartlehner G et al. Comparative benefits and harms of second-generation antidepressants: Background paper for the American College of Physicians. Ann Intern Med 2008 Nov 18; 149:734. PMID: [16]
  10. Cipriani A et al, Comparative efficacy and acceptability of 12 new-generation antidepressants: a multiple-treatments meta-analysis Lancet 29 January 2009 doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(09)60046-5 PMID: [17]
  11. Hunter SK et al. Antidepressants may mitigate the effects of prenatal maternal anxiety on infant auditory sensory gating. Am J Psychiatry 2012 Jun 1; 169:616 <PubMed> PMID: [18] <Internet> [19]
  12. Diem SJ et al. Rates of bone loss among women initiating antidepressant medication use in midlife. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2013 Sep 3 PMID: [20]
  13. First DataBank (FDB)
  14. Prescriber's Letter 20(12): 2013 Detail-Document#: [21] Comparison of Antidepressants (subscription needed) [22]
  15. Lu CY et al Changes in antidepressant use by young people and suicidal behavior after FDA warnings and media coverage: quasi- experimental study. BMJ 2014;348:g3596 <PubMed> PMID: [23] <Internet> [24]
  16. Prescriber's Letter 21(7): 2014 Choosing and Switching Antidepressants. Detail-Document#: [25] (subscription needed) [26]
  17. Sharma T et al Suicidality and aggression during antidepressant treatment: systematic review and meta-analyses based on clinical study reports. BMJ 2016;352:i65 <PubMed> PMID: [27] <Internet> [28]
    - Moncrieff J Misrepresenting harms in antidepressant trials. BMJ 2016;352:i217 <PubMed> PMID: [29] <Internet> [30]
  18. Dawson AL et al Antidepressant Prescription Claims Among Reproductive-Aged Women With Private Employer-Sponsored Insurance - United States 2008-2013 [31]
  19. Coupland C, Hill T, Morriss R et al Antidepressant use and risk of cardiovascular outcomes in people aged 20 to 64: cohort study using primary care database. BMJ 2016;352:i1350 <PubMed> PMID: Free full text&dopt=Abstract <Internet> [32]
  20. Wong J et al Treatment Indications for Antidepressants Prescribed in Primary Care in Quebec, Canada, 2006-2015. JAMA. 2016;315(20):2230-2232 <PubMed> PMID: [33] <Internet> [34]
  21. Wong J, Motulsky A, Abrahamowicz M et al. Off-label indications for antidepressants in primary care: Descriptive study of prescriptions from an indication based electronic prescribing system. BMJ 2017;356:j603 <PubMed> PMID: Free PMC Article&dopt=Abstract <Internet> [35]
  22. Then CK et al. Risk analysis of use of different classes of antidepressants on subsequent dementia: A nationwide cohort study in Taiwan. PLoS One 2017 Apr 6; 12:e0175187 PMID: Free Article&dopt=Abstract
  23. Liu X, Agerbo E, Ingstrup KG et al Antidepressant use during pregnancy and psychiatric disorders in offspring: Danish nationwide register based cohort study. BMJ 2017;358:j3668 <PubMed> PMID: [36] <Internet> [37]
    - Nordeng H, Lupattelli A, Wood M. Prenatal exposure to antidepressants and increased risk of psychiatric disorders. BMJ 2017;358:j3950 <PubMed> PMID: [38] <Internet> [39]
  24. Burcu M, Zito JM, Safer DJ et al Association of Antidepressant Medications With Incident Type 2 Diabetes Among Medicaid-Insured Youths. JAMA Pediatr. Published online October 16, 2017 PMID: [40] [41]
  25. Orciari Herman A, Sadoughi S, Sofair A Millions of Americans Keep Taking Antidepressants for Years, Often Because of Severe Withdrawal Symptoms. David G. Fairchild, MD, MPH, Editor-in-Chief Massachusetts Medical Society [42]
    - Carey B, Gebeloff R. Many People Taking Antidepressants Discover They Cannot Quit. New York Times. April 7, 2018 [43]
  26. Gafoor R, Booth HP, Gulliford MC. Antidepressant utilisation and incidence of weight gain during 10 years' follow-up: population based cohort study. BMJ 2018;361:k1951 PMID: Free PMC Article&dopt=Abstract [44]
    - Serretti A, Porcelli S. Antidepressant induced weight gain. BMJ 2018 May 23; 361:k2151 PMID: [45] [46]

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