Antibiotic Resistance


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More Specific Terms



  • tier 1 from WHO (highest priority, critical) [15]
  • tier 2 from WHO [15] (high)
  • tier 3 from WHO [15] (medium)
  • top 3 from CDC [3]
  • others from CDC[3]


  • World leaders at United United begin collective effort to reduce antimicrobial resistance [14]



More General Terms

Additional Terms


  1. Napravnik S, Edwards D, Stewart P, Stalzer B, Matteson E, Eron JJ Jr. HIV-1 drug resistance evolution among patients on potent combination antiretroviral therapy with detectable viremia. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2005 Sep 1;40(1):34-40. PMID: [1]
  2. Strasfeld L, Chou S. Antiviral drug resistance: mechanisms and clinical implications. Infect Dis Clin North Am. 2010 Sep;24(3):809-33. PMID: [2]
  3. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Antibiotic/Antimicrobial Resistance: Threat Report 2013. [3]
  4. Laxminarayan R et al Antibiotic resistance - the need for global solutions. The Lancet Infectious Diseases, Dec. 2013. 13(12):1057-1098 <PubMed> PMID: [4] <Internet> [5]
  5. FDA News Release: Wed. Dec. 11, 2013 FDA takes significant steps to address antimicrobial resistance. Agency implementing plan to ensure judicious use of antibiotics in food animals. [6]
  6. World Health Organization (WHO), April 20, 2014 WHO's first global report on antibiotic resistance reveals serious, worldwide threat to public health. [7]
    - World Health Organization (WHO) Antimicrobial Resistance, Global Report on Surveillance. 2014. [8]
  7. National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System The 2012 NARMS Annual Human Isolates Report CDC NARMS tracks antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella and other enteric (intestinal) bacteria that may cause mild or severe diarrhea or bloodstream infection. [9]
  8. The White House. Sept 18, 2014 Executive Order -- Combating Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria [10]
    - Executive Office of the President. President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology. September 2014. Report to the President on Combating Antibiotic Resistance. [11]
  9. Currie CJ et al Antibiotic treatment failure in four common infections in UK primary care 1991-2012: longitudinal analysis BMJ 2014;349:g5493 <PubMed> PMID: [12] <Internet> [13]
  10. The White Hours. Office for the Press Secretary. March 27, 2015 FACT SHEET: Obama Administration Releases National Action Plan to Combat Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria. [14]
    - The White House. March 2015 National Action Plan for Combatting Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria. [15]
  11. Liu YY, Wang Y, Walsh TR et al Emergence of plasmid-mediated colistin resistance mechanism MCR-1 in animals and human beings in China: a microbiological and molecular biological study. Lancet Infect Dis. 2015 Nov 18. pii: S1473-3099(15)00424-7 <PubMed> PMID: [16] <Internet> [17]
    - Patersonl DL, Harris PN Colistin resistance: a major breach in our last line of defence. Lancet Infect Dis. 2015 Nov 18. pii: S1473-3099(15)00463-6 <PubMed> PMID: [18] <Internet> [19]
  12. Weiner LM, Fridkin SK, Aponte-Torres Z et al Vital Signs: Preventing Antibiotic-Resistant Infections in Hospitals - United States, 2014 MMWR Early Release / March 3, 2016 / 65 [20]
  13. Medical Knowledge Self Assessment Program (MKSAP) 17, American College of Physicians, Philadelphia 2015
  14. World Health Organization (WHO) Joint News release OPGA/WHO/FAO/OIE, Sept 21, 2016 At UN, global leaders commit to act on antimicrobial resistance. [21]
  15. World Health Organization (WHO). WHO publishes list of bacteria for which new antibiotics are urgently needed. News Release. Feb 27, 2017 [22]
  16. Zhu YG, Zhao Y, Li B et al. Continental-scale population of estuaries with antibiotic resistance genes. Nat Microbiol 2017 Jan 30; 2:16270 <PubMed> PMID: [23] <Internet> [24]
  17. General Assembly of the United Nations High-Level Meeting on Antimicrobial Resistance Press Release. Sept 26, 2016 [25]
  18. World Health Organization (WHO). The world is running out of antibiotics, WHO report confirms. WHO News Release. Sept 20, 2017 [26]
  19. Carter GP, Schultz MB, Baines SL et al. Topical antibiotic use coselects for the carriage of mobile genetic elements conferring resistance to unrelated antimicrobials in Staphylococcus aureus. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2018 Feb; 62:e02000 <PubMed> PMID: Free PMC Article&dopt=Abstract <Internet> [27]
  20. Antimicrobial Resistance [28]
  21. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (NARMS) NARMS Now: Human Data (Interactive Tool) [29]

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